A review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic sclerosis is a disease of the nervous system that attacks nerve cells called neurons in the brain and spinal cord. These neurons transmit messages from the brain and spinal cord to voluntary muscles such as the arms and legs. Initially, this causes mild muscle problems

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neurodegenerative disease. The disease with progressive destruction of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex eventually leads to weakness and disability. Annual incidence 0.4-1 در 76 percent of the population. Disease spread is almost uniform worldwide. Men are almost twice as likely as women to be affected. The average life expectancy is 3-5 years.
The cause of the disease is still unknown. About 10% of cases of the disease are transmitted by family, one of the causes of which is a mutation in the superoxidase gene.

Signs and symptoms

  • The onset of the disease is weakness in the muscles of one of the upper or lower limbs or the muscles of the larynx and tongue.
  • Progressive satiety disease affects other organs simultaneously or sequentially.
  • Small muscle tremors that can be seen from the limbs.
  • Muscle cramps and jumps
  • Muscle stiffness and spasm
  • Frequent falls and imbalance while walking
  • Slimming arms and legs
  • Weakness of limbs
  • Decreased muscle mass
  • Small vibrations in the tongue
  • Swallowing disorders
  • Speech disorders
  • Laughter and crying without cause and uncontrollable
  • Weight Loss
  • Recurrent respiratory infections
  • Even in the last stages of the disease, the patient will not suffer from sphincter disorders (urinary and fecal incontinence) or any symptoms of sensory involvement.

• Diagnosis
Diagnosis is based on a set of clinical signs and several paraclinical tests, with the advice of a neurologist.

• treatment
So far, there is no definitive cure for this disease and only supportive therapies are prescribed to relieve the patient’s symptoms. The only specific drug made for this disease (Relutek (Riluzole)). Increases the person.
Patients can also benefit from supportive therapies such as physiotherapy and occupational therapy, depending on their physician.

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