Causes and treatment of nephrotic syndrome

The exact cause of this complication is unknown. This complication may be primary (without known cause) or secondary, i.e. as a result of other disorders such as diabetes, lupus erythematosus, multiple myeloma, glomerulonephritis, autoimmune disorders, severe allergic disorders, blood clots in the kidney, infections (especially skin infections), congenital heart diseases, or certain medications.

In nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis), the excretion of protein in the urine is more than three and a half grams in 24 hours, and any kind of damage to the kidney can lead to the excretion of protein.

Nephrologist Ezzatullah Abdi said: Nephrotic syndrome is a set of clinical symptoms that lead to the excretion of protein by the kidneys.

He continued: In nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis), protein excretion in urine is more than three and a half grams in 24 hours. Any kind of kidney damage can lead to protein excretion. Nephrotic syndrome often presents with an unknown, secondary cause, including diabetes, lupus (a type of immune system disease), vascular disorders, and congenital disorders that occur soon after birth.

He pointed out: Although the main cause of nephrotic syndrome is unclear, it seems to be related to a disorder in the body’s immune system, the recurrence of this syndrome may be associated with diseases of the upper respiratory system, the main disorder in this syndrome is increased permeability of the capillary wall of kidney glomeruli. It is related to albumin (blood protein), in this way, a large amount of protein needed by the body is excreted from the kidneys.

Abdi said: As the amount of protein decreases and the blood becomes thinner, water and fluids flow from the thinner place to the thicker place (from the vein to the interstitial space), so the body swells. The most common areas of swelling are around the eyes and ankles. In cases of severe swelling, respiratory disorders and diarrhea are also seen. Other symptoms of nephrotic syndrome include anorexia, fatigue, paleness, and lethargy.

He clarified: Nephrotic syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms, but tests are also performed. In addition to protein, fat and red blood cells may also be seen in the urine. Examining the body’s defense factors as well as ultrasound and kidney sampling are done to diagnose nephrotic syndrome according to the patient’s needs and doctor’s diagnosis.

He admitted: With the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, protein secretion in urine is reduced, infection is prevented and swelling is reduced. In the initial stage, treatment with corticosteroids begins. Most patients respond very well to this drug treatment, but in case of recurrence of nephrotic syndrome and the patient does not respond to corticosteroids, drugs that weaken the immune system are used.

August 22, 1393 10:24

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