Hepatitis A is a virus that causes infection and inflammation of the liver. This type of hepatitis rarely causes serious liver damage or death and does not cause chronic liver disease, but it can cause significant absenteeism at work or school.
Once a person is infected with it, they will be immune and will never be infected again. virus hepatitis A or (HAV) is common in areas with low socio-economic status combined with lack of proper sanitation. It spreads through contaminated food and water or close person-to-person contact. Children often transmit it.
Improved sanitation, public health policies, water supplies, and the introduction of a vaccine in 1995 have reduced the number of cases worldwide. However, outbreaks still exist. In December 2016, an outbreak in the United States that affected 143 people was classified into a category of Strawberry The frozen ones were related. There was no death involved.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends vaccination to prevent infection and the spread of disease. In this article, we get to know useful information about this disease:
1- Symptoms of the disease
Many people do not have any symptoms for HAV, but if symptoms do appear, it is usually 15 to 50 days after infection. Most adults have similar symptoms Influenza will experience
These symptoms include the following:
– Nausea, loss of appetite and vomiting
– Abdominal pain and diarrhea
– Weakness and fatigue
– Joint pain
Jaundice, which includes yellowing of the skin and whiteness of the eyes.
– Dark colored urine and pale stools
Children under 6 years of age usually do not show symptoms. Jaundice affects less than 10 percent of children under 6 years of age, 40 to 50 percent of people 6 to 14 years of age, and 70 to 80 percent of people over 14 years of age.
Symptoms often resolve within the first 3 to 6 months after infection begins, but about 15 percent of people with HAV have persistent or recurring symptoms for 6 to 9 months. HAV disease can be fatal in elderly patients and in people with chronic liver disease.
2- Causes of illness
A person infected with HAV sheds the virus through excretion of body waste or feces. It can be found when a healthy person consumes food or water that has been contaminated with the feces or body waste of an infected person. The virus can survive for a month or more in seawater, fresh water, sewage, and soil.
Most infections will be transmitted through close personal contact with an infected close family member or sexual partner, but not through casual contact. Foodborne HBV outbreaks in the United States sometimes occur, for example, through food handlers who are infected with the virus. In 2016, an outbreak occurred due to a batch of frozen strawberries.
3- Disease risk factors
The most commonly reported risk factor for HAV in the United States is international travel. Even among people staying in luxury hotels, 3 in 1,000 people get HAV every month. Anyone who has not been vaccinated, or has not been previously infected, is susceptible.
Other factors that increase the risk include:
– Sexual contact or domestic contact with an infected person
– Living or working in a public accommodation
Attending or working in a day care center
– Gay activity
– Injected drugs, especially if needles are shared.
– Taking other drugs
– Handling food
– Working with superior people (boss, foreman, foreman, etc.) infected with HAV or working with HAV virus in a research laboratory
– Exposure to food or water that is the source of the spread of the virus.
– People with blood clotting disorders
In the United States, daily vaccination of all infants began in 1999. In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended expanding vaccination to all children aged 12 to 23 months in the United States. This has reduced the number of infections by 95%. However, the infection can affect those who are at higher risk and teenagers who have not been vaccinated. In areas where there is no immunization, its prevalence
It can be a dangerous stimulant. In 1988, its prevalence reached 300,000 in Shanghai alone.
A blood test can confirm infection with HAV. Antibodies can distinguish acute infection and previous infection. Acute infections with HAV should be reported to local public health authorities to prevent further spread of the disease.
There is no specific treatment; But supportive treatment can increase comfort levels and prevent complications such as dehydration and exhaustion. These treatments include the following:
– Replenishment of food and liquids
– Avoiding alcohol
– Rest, with work stoppage time
Take over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers as needed.
Patients with significant nausea and vomiting may be hospitalized for intravenous (IV) fluids or serum. Complications are rare, and most people recover completely. About 85 percent of people with HAV recover completely within 3 months, and most people have a full recovery after 6 months.
6- Prophylactic treatment after exposure to the virus
If a person is unvaccinated and knows they have been exposed to HAV, they can still get both vaccinated or immune globulin within 2 weeks of exposure.
This may include the following people:
– Food workers who have tested positive for HAV virus.
– Staff and children in a day care center where someone has been diagnosed with HAV.
– Anyone in personal contact with a person who has HAV, including their nurses and caregivers.
The treatment to be received depends on the age and health status of the person.
Prevention depends on immunization and good hygiene practices.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine immunization against HAV.
All 1-year-old children and adults who are at risk of exposure or have chronic liver disease are given two doses of the injectable vaccine, 6 to 12 months apart. Most people will have protective levels of antibodies within a month of the first dose. The second dose acts as a booster.
9- Washing hands
HAV can survive on fingertips for up to 4 hours, so good hand washing practices and healthy food preparation can help prevent transmission. Hands should be washed after using the bathroom, changing diapers, and before preparing or eating food. Environmental surfaces can be cleaned with a freshly prepared solution of a 1:100 dilution of household bleach.
10- food and drink
Travelers should avoid raw seafood, undercooked foods, and foods that may have been washed in contaminated water. Drinking water must be boiled for at least 1 minute at a temperature of at least 185 degrees Fahrenheit (F) or 85 degrees Celsius (C) before being bottled. Adding iodine to water or making water healthy Chlorine It also destroys the virus.
HAV disease is an acute infection that can affect the liver. This can last for several weeks or months. The risk of contracting it has decreased dramatically since the routine use of vaccines. People who travel to countries with a low socio-economic status are advised to ensure that they are not infected by vaccination before going.