The fourth stage Colon Cancer Colon cancer occurs when cancer has spread to the colon or spread to other tissues and organs (metastasis). Colon cancer most often spreads to the liver, but it may also spread to the lungs, lymph nodes, or the lining of the abdominal cavity. The American Cancer Society (ACS) notes that the 5-year relative survival rate for people with stage IV colon cancer is 14%. However, people differ from each other and other factors also contribute to a person’s survival rate. Follow this article from Dr. Salam’s diseases section.
Diagnosis of the fourth stage of colon cancer
Accurate and correct diagnosis Colon Cancer Big may require patience, as doctors use many tests to diagnose and locate the cancer. If doctors find cancer, they will use more tests to see if the cancer has progressed.
Tests and processes that can diagnose Colon Cancer Help include:
- Physical examination
- blood test
- Colonoscopy to view the inside of the rectum
- A biopsy in which the doctor takes a sample of tissue and sends it to a laboratory for analysis
- Molecular tests to help identify specific characteristics of the tumor that may be important for treatment
- Imaging tests such as CT, PET, ultrasound, or MRI to determine if the cancer has progressed.
- A chest X-ray to check if the cancer has spread to the lungs
After performing all the necessary tests, the doctor will discuss his diagnosis with the patient.
A person diagnosed with stage IV colon cancer must make decisions about the path ahead, especially regarding treatment options.
It is important to discuss all treatment options with your doctor and understand the purpose of each treatment.
Treatment options for stage IV colon cancer
Treatment options for people with stage IV colon cancer are more limited than those for early stage cancer. However, there are still a few treatment options as well as other factors to consider.
When cancer cells have spread to distant organs and tissues, surgery is unlikely to cure the cancer. There are some other cases for which surgery may be a better option.
If a scan shows that the cancer has spread to only a few small areas, surgery may still be helpful. By performing surgery and removing cancer cells, doctors hope to help the person live longer.
These surgeries include the removal of a part of the large intestine and the adjacent lymph nodes. Additional and secondary surgeries can remove parts of the tissue where the cancer has progressed. Doctors usually recommend chemotherapy before and after surgery.
If the tumor cells are too large or too numerous to remove, the doctor may recommend chemotherapy before the person undergoes any surgery. If the chemotherapy causes the tumors to shrink, then the surgeon may be asked to proceed with surgery.
If cancer cells are causing a blockage in the colon, doctors may need to do more surgery. In some cases, minimally invasive surgery, such as placing a stent, may be needed. Surgeons can insert a stent, which is a hollow tube usually made of a metal or plastic mesh, into the colon through a colonoscopy. When this is done successfully, the stent can keep the bowel open and invasive surgery is no longer necessary.
Doctors may also recommend a colostomy, in which the part of the intestine above the cancerous tissue is removed, and the body’s waste products are removed through a small opening in the skin.
If the colon cancer is so advanced that surgery is not effective, chemotherapy is the main treatment option.
Most people with stage IV Colon Cancer Adults receive chemotherapy or specific targeted therapies to control cancer progression or disease symptoms.
Doctors may recommend some treatment groups that include a targeted drug that targets the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway or the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway.
The choice between treatment groups is different in every situation. The most appropriate treatment option depends on the type of treatment that the person has received before, as well as their overall health and response to treatment.
It is not unusual for doctors to try multiple treatments. If the cancer does not respond to the first treatment, that treatment may be stopped and another treatment may be used instead.
Doctors may also recommend radiation therapy in the last stages of colon cancer treatment to reduce symptoms such as pain and discomfort. This treatment may even shrink the cancerous tumor for a while, but it usually does not cure the cancer.
Hepatic artery injection
In case of contagion Colon Cancer large to the liver, hepatic artery injection may be a treatment option for this group of people. Hepatic artery injection is a type of regional chemotherapy that involves direct injection of a chemotherapy drug into the hepatic artery inside the liver. This treatment may kill cancer cells without harming healthy liver cells.
Removal of damaged tissue by surgery or embolization
Removal of damaged tissue, or embolization, may be appropriate for people who have metastatic or recurrent colon cancer. This frequent recurrence is caused by the presence of several tumors in the lung or liver, whose size is less than 4 cm.
In removing the damaged tissue, it uses radio frequencies, microwaves, or alcohol, which people know as percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI). This method targets cancer cells to destroy the tissues. Do not damage the surrounding cancer cells.
During embolization, the doctor will inject substances into the blood vessels to reduce or block the blood flow to the cancer cells inside the liver.
If the cancer has spread to many distant organs and tissues, surgery may not help prolong the person’s life. Other treatment options can cause pain and difficulty and may cause other symptoms that Deteriorate the quality of a person’s life.
In such cases, people may not use medical treatments to treat cancer and instead choose palliative care to live a more comfortable life.
Palliative care typically involves finding ways to manage and control pain and reduce a person’s symptoms so they can live as comfortably as possible.
Summary and general opinion
According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), colon cancer is the third most common cancer among American men and women. One out of every 22 men and one out of every 24 women get colon cancer.
The fourth stage of colon cancer is the last stage of this cancer in which the disease has spread to the tissues or other organs of the body and as a result, it becomes more difficult to treat it. The treatment may be partially successful or it may be Cancer relapses after treatment.
The American Cancer Society notes that the relative 5-year survival rate for stage IV colon cancer is about 14%. However, it does not account for other factors that may affect a person’s survival rate.
For example, the success of certain treatments may vary among people, and some treatments that work well for some people may not have much of an effect on others.
Of course, these statistics are from the past, and as the types of treatments improve over time, the survival rate may also improve as more effective treatments become available.
Individual factors can also play an important role in one’s personal results. For example, a person’s age and overall health may affect their response to the type of treatment.
The rate of progression of the cancer may also change this theory. If the cancer causes complications such as colon obstruction or a hole in the intestinal wall, the person’s perspective will likely change.
These survival rates are only related to the fourth stage of colon cancer. The survival rate will be different for people in whom the cancer has spread further or for those whose cancer has recurred after treatment.
Summary and abstract of the contents
The fourth stage of colon cancer is the last stage of this disease. Life expectancy at this stage is less than the early stages of cancer. The relative 5-year survival rate for colon cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is about 14%. But other factors, such as selected treatment methods and general health of the person, increase the life expectancy of a person.
Although there are still many treatment options available, including surgery and chemotherapy, some people with late-stage cancer do not choose medical treatment and seek palliative care.
Did you know that men are more at risk of colon cancer? Do you know the symptoms of colon cancer in men? If you or your loved ones suffer from this disease, share your experiences and suggestions with other Dr. Salam users.