Complete information about infertility in women

If you have trouble having children, know that you are not alone. About 10-15% of couples suffer from infertility. Husbands and wives are equally involved in infertility. Therefore, most of the Iranian families who blame the problem of not having children on women are not right.

In some parts of the country, infertility has many negative consequences for women, including divorce, polygamy, blaming others, and so on. Infertility itself is divided into two major categories: primary and secondary. Primary infertility means that the couple has difficulty having children from the beginning of marriage, and secondary infertility means that the couple has children, and after a few years they want to have another child, they have problems.
Infertility has its own scientific definition. An infertile couple is told not to have children regularly and without prevention after 12 months of intimacy. Please note the number 12 months. It is sometimes observed that young couples, for example, seek infertility treatment 3 or 6 months after marriage. These couples should be reminded that any diagnostic and therapeutic action will be after one year. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility, especially in women, is costly and complicated. If the woman is over 35 years old, the number of 12 months is reduced to 6 months. Because women find it difficult to conceive after the age of 35, diagnosis and treatment should not be delayed. Fortunately, with the advancement of medical science, many cases of infertility can be easily treated. One of the things parents are advised to do is to keep a close eye on their daughter and son. Both girls and boys should reach two types of puberty with age: physical puberty and reproductive puberty. Parents should be aware of when the physical symptoms of puberty begin in boys and girls, what the sequence of these symptoms is, and when their children reach full maturity. Any delay or change in this process may cause marital and fertility problems in the future.
If a couple wants to have a child and neither of them has a problem, this usually happens within 6 months. On the whole, after 12 months of unprotected intercourse, 90% of couples will have children. And most of the remaining 10 percent will have children later, with or without treatment. Infertility has no specific symptoms, one of the most important symptoms in women is irregular periods or menstruation, but that does not mean that every woman who has irregular menstruation is infertile.
When should you see a doctor?
Up to 12 months have not passed without your prevention, do not worry about having children. A woman with the following characteristics should consult her doctor earlier than 12 months:
• Be over 34 years old and have been unprotected for 6 months.
• Menstruation is irregular or interrupted altogether.
Menstruation is associated with severe pain.
• If you have a history of endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease

Causes of infertility in women
The most common causes of infertility in women are:
Damage to or obstruction of the fallopian tubes: The cause is usually infection and inflammation of the fallopian tubes. One of the most common sexually transmitted diseases is chlamydia infection. The most common cause of infection and obstruction of the fallopian tubes is chlamydia infection, which is transmitted through sexual intercourse.
Endometriosis: If the lining of the uterus outside it is implanted and grows in any part of the body, such as the pelvis, it is called endometriosis. Endometriosis causes dysfunction of sperm, eggs, ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes.
Ovulation disorder in which a woman becomes infertile due to lack of ovulation. Causes include ovarian disease, ovarian damage, certain medications, cancer, exercise, and severe malnutrition.
Increased blood prolactin hormone: Prolactin hormone causes milk secretion in women. If a woman is not pregnant and does not breastfeed, but her blood prolactin hormone level rises, it can impair ovulation. One of the symptoms of elevated blood prolactin is the secretion of milk from the breasts.
Polycystic ovary syndrome: Ovarian cyst is a relatively common disease in women, but it is different from polycystic ovary syndrome. In polycystic ovary syndrome, both ovaries are filled with small and large cysts. In this syndrome, the ovaries begin to secrete male hormones, causing hair loss in women and damage to ovulation. Polycystic ovary syndrome causes the body to become resistant to insulin and leads to female obesity.
Premature menopause: The cessation of menstruation and the emptying of the ovaries from the follicles before the age of 40 is called premature menopause. Although the cause is still unknown, some cases such as autoimmune diseases, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and smoking are considered to be the causes of premature menopause.
Uterine fibroids: These are benign masses that form on the wall of the uterus and affect most women in the third and fourth decades of life. Sometimes these lumps enlarge and cause the fallopian tubes to become blocked. Most pregnancies do occur, but implantation of the fetus is difficult due to the presence of a mass inside the uterus.
Pelvic adhesions: Pelvic adhesions may occur after pelvic infection, appendicitis, and any type of pelvic surgery. Pelvic adhesions can damage a woman’s fertility.
Medication: Some medications temporarily cause infertility in women. Usually, after stopping the medication, the problem goes away.
Thyroid disease: Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can cause menopause and infertility.
Cancer and its treatment: Some cancers, especially cancer of the reproductive system in women, severely damage women’s fertility. Like men, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can damage women’s fertility.
Other diseases: Any disease that delays puberty and stops menstruation can lead to infertility, such as adrenal hyperplasia, diabetes, anemia, and kidney disease.
We must keep in mind that early diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as pelvic infections can be very helpful in preventing infertility.

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