Health

Dangerous consequences of low vitamin C in the body

Protein C is produced in the body by the liver, and its deficiency disturbs the process of regulating the formation of blood clots in the body.

Blood clots usually form when blood vessels are damaged and often disappear on their own after the wound heals.

According to the Medical News Today website, the process of forming a blood clot is called coagulation, and for a healthy coagulation, it is necessary to have proteins and blood cells called platelets in the right amount.

However, some blood clots form when there is no injury; These clots do not go away on their own, and their health consequences can be fatal.

Protein deficiency c

Protein C, which is released into the bloodstream after being produced in the liver, regulates blood clotting by blocking other coagulation proteins. Some people’s bodies cannot produce protein C in the required amount and amount, which is called protein C deficiency. Called.

Because protein C blocks blood clotting proteins, the less protein C the body makes, the greater the risk of blood clots. On the other hand, protein C deficiency can be mild or severe. Many people with mild protein C deficiency never develop blood clots.

Causes of protein deficiency C

Protein C deficiency is hereditary or acquired, among the reasons related to the acquisition of this condition, the following can be mentioned:
*Treatment with blood thinners such as warfarin
* Liver failure
* Vitamin K deficiency
* Blood clots
* Taking out the small intestine
* Taking antibiotics for several days, without consuming proper nutrients
The presence of tumors throughout the body
Coagulation disorders due to blood infections
*Bacterial infections in young people

But hereditary protein C deficiency is due to mutations in the PROC gene. Researchers have identified 270 different mutations that either reduce the production of protein C or prevent it from working properly.
The more mutations in the PROC gene, the more severe the condition.

Risk factors

Since protein C deficiency can be inherited, the biggest risk factors for this condition are having parents with the disease or having a family history of blood clots.
The mutation that causes protein C deficiency is transmitted in a pattern such that if a parent has the condition, the probability of inheriting the disease is 50%. But more serious stuff happens when people inherit mutated PROC genes from both parents.

Symptoms of protein C deficiency

The most severe cases of protein C deficiency usually occur shortly after birth.

But in some people with very low levels of protein C, symptoms of this condition may not be seen until puberty.

In milder cases of protein C deficiency, people find out about the condition rather than the symptoms. These people may find that they have protein C deficiency after developing blood clots or other related complications.

Complications of protein C deficiency

But the complications of protein C deficiency can be very severe, which include:
*Deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis, also known as DVT, can occur even among people with mild protein C deficiency. DVT * are blood clots that form under the surface of the skin, usually in the hands and feet, but also occur around the brain.
*Pulmonary embolism
*Pulmonary embolism or PE occurs after deep vein thrombosis and when a clot blocks blood flow to the lungs.
* Problems during pregnancy
*Protein C deficiency increases the risk of blood clots for women during pregnancy and after childbirth, so that this risk is greater after the birth of the baby.
*Purpura fulminans
Purpura fulminans is a fatal condition that affects infants with severe protein C deficiency.
Purpura fulminans occurs soon after birth when blood clots form in small vessels throughout the body.
This causes the blood flow around these clots to stop and the cells to die.
Many newborns do not survive the disease, otherwise they are at high risk of blood clots and blockages.

* Necrosis caused by warfarin
It is a rare and painful disease that occurs in one out of every 10,000 patients treated with warfarin, a blood thinner.
Blood clots cause cells to die in the chest, buttocks, thighs, or trunk. Bleeding in these areas turns their color blue and causes swelling, severe pain and gangrene.

Diagnosis of protein C deficiency

A blood test is the only way to be sure if a person has protein C deficiency. However, some conditions such as warfarin treatment can cause a temporary drop in protein C.

Repeated tests may also be needed in the diagnosis process. People should wait at least 14 days after using warfarin to get an accurate test. On the other hand, testing family members can help confirm the hereditary nature of this condition.

Prevention and treatment

Taking steps to prevent blood clots is a good idea for everyone, even those without protein C deficiency.

Simple measures such as losing weight, stopping smoking and staying active are among the strategies to prevent the formation of blood clots.
But people with protein C deficiency may want to take extra steps. A possible course of action is to stop estrogen therapy and avoid using estrogen and progestogen contraceptives.

On the other hand, if a family member has protein C deficiency, it is necessary that all family members undergo a protein C deficiency test.
Also, people should inform the authorities about their protein C deficiency before surgery, pregnancy, long-haul flights and other situations in which mobility is limited.

Doctors prescribe blood thinners for people with inherited protein C deficiency who have blood clots, but for people who don’t have blood clots, blood thinners are only recommended when they are at risk for blood clots. They include: after surgery and during long periods when the body remains immobile. At these times, protein C concentrate may be used.

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