There are various ways to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, but there are no accurate statistics on how effective each one is. Undoubtedly, the less direct contact with genital secretions, the less chance of getting infected. Contraceptive devices such as condoms They are very effective in this field, but again, there are no very accurate statistics of their effectiveness. There are also antibacterial solutions and gels that cover the vaginal wall, which prevent germs from penetrating the mucous membrane, but all of these are in the research phase and their effectiveness is not very clear. Recently, a type of female contraceptive has also been designed. Although it is not as effective as the male condom, it is recommended that women, especially those who cannot convince their husbands to use condoms, should at least use this type of condom. It should be noted that there is no vaccine to prevent gonorrhea and chlamydia.
Chlamydia is the first disease and gonorrhea is the second most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. Of course, there are no accurate statistics of the prevalence of these diseases in Iran because cultural issues prevent people from providing accurate information about themselves. These two diseases start with very mild symptoms and are easily resolved with a course of drug treatment, but if they are not taken care of, they can even cause infertility, infection and severe pelvic pain.
There may be no symptoms at all!
It takes about 3 to 7 days from the time of contact with a person with gonorrhea and the entry of bacteria into the body until the symptoms of the disease appear. Of course, a person may not show any symptoms at all and have a completely healthy appearance. In any case, the symptoms of the disease in women are often shown in the form of infection and inflammation of the cervix. After that, mild symptoms such as pain or burning may occur during intercourse. Since the cervix becomes fragile and bleeds, the person experiences spotting between monthly habits or experiences bleeding and pain during intercourse. In the internal examination of women, purulent secretions in the cervix can be easily observed. Therefore, the symptoms and pain may be so mild that the person does not notice it and then gradually passes the acute period of the disease, while the infection remains untreated.
See a doctor quickly!
If the inflammation of the cervix is not treated, it may spread to other parts, including the inside of the pelvis, and cause a pelvic infection, the symptoms, complications and pain of which are more severe. In this way, the person feels severe pain with every movement of the cervix or pressing on the ovary and uterine tubes, as well as during intercourse, and may have purulent and smelly secretions. Since this infection can affect the uterus and fallopian tubes, one of the complications of not treating it is adhesion of the tubes and infertility. So, if the pelvic infection is not treated, it is possible that the symptoms will disappear on their own over time or only a chronic pelvic pain will remain, but it will damage the reproductive system.
A painful infection with pus
Gonorrhea causes urinary tract infection in a quarter of women. In this case, the person will experience burning, frequent urination and even purulent discharge. Another complication of gonorrhea is infection of the anus. Such an infection is very painful and accompanied by a lot of purulent secretions from the anus, but it usually resolves very quickly with antibiotic treatment. Another not so common complication of gonorrhea is pharyngitis and pharyngitis. This infection can also happen in pregnant women and people with immune system defects.
Cause of premature birth of the baby
Having gonorrhea during pregnancy can cause premature rupture of the water sac and as a result of premature birth. Although it seems that this disease does not affect the baby and the delivery process and does not cause abnormalities and death of the fetus, premature birth itself can cause complications for the mother and the fetus. The probability of surviving a premature fetus is much lower than a normal baby, so treating this disease in pregnant women is very important.
It also causes infertility in men if…
Gonorrhea in men mostly appears as a urinary tract infection with burning, frequent urination, secretions, etc. Discharges may be purulent and mostly come out of the duct before morning urination. Samples can be taken from these secretions and gonorrhea can be diagnosed. Complications of gonorrhea in men are not as dangerous as in women, unless the urinary tract infection leads to “epidiedema”. The epididymis is a duct through which semen passes and plays a big role in male fertility. If this inflammation occurs and becomes chronic, it can cause adhesion or closure of the epididymis and infertility in men. Another complication is infection of the epididymal tube, which manifests as one-sided pain in the testicles and accumulation of water in the scrotum, inflammation, fever, etc., and is usually resolved with antibiotic treatment.
The only way to get infected is through sexual contact
The only way to get gonorrhea is through sexual contact, and usually there is no other way to get this infection. In all sexually transmitted diseases, the wife must be investigated and it is better for her to be present at the doctor’s visit so that they can be treated at the same time. Treatment of the disease is very simple because gonococcus is a weak microbe and is easily destroyed with antibiotics. In the past, penicillin was used for treatment, but now due to the discovery of penicillin resistance, other antibiotic drugs such as cefixime, ciprofloxacin, etc. are used. The initial choice of treatment is preferably intramuscular injection. Even with one dose of injection, the germ can be destroyed. Safe drugs such as Cefixime are usually used in pregnant women.
The most common cause of urinary tract infection in men
Chlamydia is the most common microbial cause of sexually transmitted diseases in the world. The symptoms of gonorrhea and chlamydia are very similar, except that the symptoms of gonorrhea are louder and more frequent than the symptoms of chlamydia. It seems that in 30% of cases, both gonorrhea and chlamydia occur at the same time. As a result, a person who presents with discharge, burning and urinary tract infection is usually treated for both diseases. Many times, a person does not notice chlamydia because the pain, burning, discharge, etc. are much less than gonorrhea, so they may go to the doctor later or not at all. Its latent period is also slightly longer and it takes between 7 and 14 days from the time of contact with an infected person for symptoms to appear. Just like gonorrhea, a person may not show any symptoms at all and may not be aware of the disease, but may be a carrier of it. So it is better to use prevention methods in all situations.
Symptoms in women
Chlamydia secretions are not very thick and purulent and may be completely watery and clear. A person may have non-specific pelvic pain. Pain and bleeding during intercourse and spotting between periods also occur in chlamydia. If this disease is not treated, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease. In this case, it is painful during examination of the abdomen and on the ovaries, and fever and other symptoms may also be added to it. Just like gonorrhea, if the infection spreads into the pelvis, it can lead to adhesions and infertility in the future. Other symptoms and complications of chlamydia in women and men are similar to gonorrhea, although less severe.
Very easy treatment
Chlamydia is treated with antibiotics and is very easy. Usually, in this case, erythromycin family drugs are used for 7 days, which are also safe for pregnant women. If the person is not pregnant, more effective drugs such as doxycycline and azithromycin can be used. The doctor can usually diagnose gonorrhea and chlamydia from the patient’s clinical symptoms and prescribe medicine. For laboratory diagnosis, secretions are also sampled. This method is especially necessary for pregnant women because it is more important to diagnose the type of disease and choose the treatment in these people. Of course, laboratory diagnosis methods are not very easy. There is a culture medium for gonorrhea, but these methods for chlamydia are limited to research and not very practical. As a result, molecular methods are used to find chlamydia or gonorrhea genome or bacterial nucleic acid in secretions, which can also be done in some Iranian laboratories.