Diseases associated with dysphagia

Common symptoms for dysphagia include pain in the esophagus and heartburn, nausea and vomiting, various diseases can cause swallowing, this complication can be treated with some medical and medical care. People with swallowing disorders should eat soft, light and digestible foods.

Refers to the problem of swallowing. The most common sign is esophageal disorders.

It is classified into three stages: the first stage: transfer, the second stage: transportation and the third stage: input. Dysphagia increases the risk of suffocation and food entering the lungs and may lead to malnutrition and dehydration.


If the patient has symptoms of respiratory distress (such as shortness of breath and snoring), airway obstruction is suspected. Quickly follow the instructions to increase intra-abdominal pressure. Give oxygen and insert the endotracheal tube into the trachea.


History: Ask about the time of onset and the characteristics of the pain. Determine the factors that aggravate and alleviate swallowing disorders. Ask about recent vomiting, bloating, weight loss, anorexia, hoarseness, shortness of breath or cough.

Physical examination: Assess reflexes, difficulty swallowing and coughing. If there is a good swallowing or coughing reflex, check the wheezing reflex. Listen to the patient talk about the symptoms of muscle weakness. Examine the mouth for dry mucous membranes and viscous, thick discharge.

Inspect the tongue, facial muscle weakness, and any obstruction. Check for navigation problems.

Causes of swallowing disorders

1- Achalasia: Swallowing the problem gradually progresses to stage three and worsens with tension and the presence of emotional pressure. Impaired swallowing occurs before esophageal colic. Return of undigested food, especially at night, causes wheezing, coughing, choking, and bad breath.

Late signs and symptoms of the disease are weight loss, excessive weight loss, bloody vomiting and heartburn.

2 – Airway obstruction: The second stage of dysphagia is accompanied by wheezing and impaired tone of voice. Disruption of swallowing occurs quickly and painlessly when bleeding blocks the trachea. When inflammation causes obstruction, swallowing disorders will be painful and have a slow onset.

Respiratory distress associated with upper airway obstruction threatens vitality.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Signs and symptoms of this complication include: difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness and weakness, muscle spasms, chewing gum, shortness of breath, shallow breathing, increased respiration rate, slurred speech, increased deep tendon reflex and It is emotional instability.

Botulism: Disorders of swallowing (stage one) and heartburn usually occur within thirty-six hours after ingestion. Blurred vision or diplopia, dry mouth, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness or gradual paralysis, descending and symmetrical are other signs and symptoms.

5 – Bulbar palsy: Signs and symptoms include: difficulty swallowing (stage one), progressive and painful with runny mouth, difficulty chewing, chewing chewing and return of fluid from the nose. Increased muscle contraction of the arms and legs, Increased deep tendon reflex and emotional instability are other signs and symptoms.

6. Malignant esophageal tumor: Swallowing and painless disorders (stages two and three) with weight loss are the earliest and most common findings. As the tumor progresses, difficulty swallowing will be accompanied by pain, and persistent chest pain, coughing with bloody sputum, hoarseness, and sore throat will occur.

Other findings include nausea, vomiting, fever, hiccups, bloody vomit, tarry stools, and bad breath.

7. Esophageal diverticulum: Stage three Swallowing disorders occur when the diverticulum enlarges and blocks the esophagus. Other signs and symptoms include recurrence of esophageal contents, chronic cough, hoarseness, chest pain, and bad breath.

8- Obstruction of the esophagus by a foreign body: Sudden onset of swallowing disorders (stage two or three) is accompanied by wheezing, coughing and esophageal pain. Shortness of breath occurs if the obstruction puts pressure on the trachea.

9- Esophageal spasm: Impaired swallowing (two stages) of solids and fluids occurs with pain under the sternum. The pain may spread and be relieved by drinking water. Decreased heart rate may occur.

10 – Narrowing of the esophageal duct: Disorder of swallowing (stage three) probably occurs with runny mouth, increased number of breaths and wheezing. Eating chemicals may cause burning, soreness or redness of the lips and mouth.

11- Inflammation of the esophagus: Severe inflammation of the esophagus due to alkali or acid causes severe swallowing (stage three) with salivation, bloody vomiting, increased respiration, fever and severe pain in the mouth and chest that is exacerbated by swallowing .

Inflammation of the esophagus (due to candida) causes difficulty swallowing (stage two), a sore throat, and possibly back pain when swallowing. In esophagitis (due to reflux), dysphagia (stage three) is a sign of late illness and is accompanied by heartburn, bloating, vomiting, dry night cough, and chest pain under the sternum.

12- Decreased blood calcium: Disorder of swallowing (stage one) with numbness and tingling in the nose, ears, fingertips and around the mouth. Tetanus is accompanied by contraction of the muscles of the fingers, muscles and larynx.

13. Laryngeal cancer (of external origin): Dysphagia (stage two) and shortness of breath are late symptoms. Other symptoms include hoarseness, snoring, pain, bad breath, weight loss, unilateral earache, chronic cough, and weight loss.

14. Lead poisoning: difficult, progressive and painless swallowing. Other symptoms include a lead color on the gums, a metallic taste in the mouth, edema of the feet, paralysis of the optic nerve, sagging feet or wrists, mental damage, seizures, and symptoms of anemia caused by red blood cell damage.

15. Lower esophageal ring: Swallowing disorder (stage three) with a foreign body sensation occurs in the lower esophagus that may be relieved by vomiting or drinking water.

16- Myasthenia gravis: Swallowing difficulty (stage one) and painless that occurs after drooping eyelids and two noses. Other symptoms include a masked face, hoarseness, food returning from the nose, shallow breathing, shortness of breath, and sudden head movement.

17. Oral tumor: Disorder of swallowing (stage one) and painful with hoarseness and sore mouth lesions. Other signs and symptoms include abnormal taste buds, bleeding from the mouth, or improper placement of dentures in the mouth.

18. Parkinson’s disease: difficult swallowing (stage one), progressive and painless that causes suffocation.

Other signs and symptoms include: abnormal slowness of movement, tremors, muscle stiffness, chewing gum, masked face, hoarse voice, increased salivation and tears, constipation, forward bent posture, brisk walking and restlessness Urine is optional.

19. Chronic inflammation of the throat: Disorder of swallowing (stage two) and painful with a sore and dry throat, cough and a feeling of fullness in the throat.

20. Progressive systemic sclerosis: first Raynaud’s phenomenon and mild swallowing disorder occurs. As long as the patient is only able to swallow fluids. Other symptoms include heartburn, weight loss, abdominal distention, diarrhea, and a foul odor.

Other findings include joint pain and stiffness, a mask-like face, and thickening of the skin that tends to stiffen.

21. Rabies: A life-threatening disorder. In this disease, there is a disorder in swallowing fluids (second stage). Other symptoms include dehydration, runny mouth, fear of water and loose, progressive paralysis that can lead to shock, coma and death.

22. Tetanus: In a patient who has not been vaccinated, swallowing disorder (stage one) occurs about a week after he or she has a penetrating wound.

Other signs and symptoms include: Increased base muscle contraction, increased deep vein reflex, increased heart rate, excessive sweating, runny mouth, jaw locking, evil laughter, severe lumbar muscle contraction (head and legs bent back) Stiffness of the board such as abdomen, seizures and mild fever.

23. Other causes: Diagnostic and therapeutic methods: Recent tracheostomy or repeated or prolonged tracheal intubation may temporarily interfere with swallowing.

24. Radiation therapy: Treatment of malignant oral cancer with radiation may cause a brief secretion of saliva and temporary difficulty swallowing.

Treatment of swallowing disorders

Nursing Care

Stimulate salivation by talking about food, adding a slice of lemon or pickle to the food tray, and taking care of your mouth. Involve food when salivation is reduced. Give the patient as prescribed saliva to control excessive salivation, antiemetic or anti-nergic.

Talk to your nutritionist about choosing foods with specific ingredients and temperatures. Talk to a therapist about assessing the risk of food entering the patient’s lungs and starting exercises to help swallow.

Tips for children: Coughing, choking or bloating during eating are signs of difficulty swallowing. Swallowing problems in children may be due to severe inflammation of the esophagus, obstruction of the esophagus by a foreign body (the most common), and congenital esophageal abnormalities.

Tips for the Elderly: In patients over the age of 50 with malignant cervical cancer, dysphagia is usually the primary complaint.

Patient education

Suggest eating foods that are easy to swallow. Discuss with the patient the amount of food the patient can consume to reduce the risk of suffocation and food entering the lungs.

Source: Health

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