Do not take nail problems for granted

The nails take care of the fingers. They are made from layers of hardened protein called creatine, which is also found in hair and skin. The health of your nails can be a clue to your general health. Nail cavities, for example, are common in people with psoriasis (a disease with scaly patches on the skin).

Nail cavities can also be linked to connective tissue disorders, such as Reiter’s syndrome and alopecia areata (an autoimmune disease causing hair loss). Healthy nails are usually smooth and have a stable color. Certain types of nail discoloration and changes in nail growth rate can be signs of disease (lung, heart, kidney and liver), diabetes and anemia. White spots and vertical nail grooves are harmless.
Fingernails (especially in the dominant hand) grow faster than toenails.
On average, fingernails grow 3.5 mm per month, while toenails grow an average of 1.6 mm per month.
Nail growth rate depends on age, time of year, level of activity and heredity.
Women’s nails (except during pregnancy) grow more slowly than men.
Nails grow faster in summer than in winter.
Nail growth is affected by disease, nutrition, medications, trauma, chronic diseases, fever and the aging process. This article examines a number of nail problems.

Nail sticking
Spoon-shaped nails
Terry’s nails
Bio lines
Yellow Nail Syndrome
Fragile and brittle nails
Loose nails
Puncture Puncture or depression in the nail
Nail problems that sometimes need treatment include:
Tips for having healthy nails

Nail sticking

Nail clubbing is sometimes the result of hypoxia in the blood and can be a sign of a variety of lung diseases. Nail clubbing is also found in people with inflammatory bowel disease, cardiovascular disease, and liver disease. And AIDS is associated.

Spoon-shaped nails

Spoon nails (koilonychia) are soft nails that come in the form of spoons. Spoon nails are often a sign of iron deficiency anemia or a known liver disease such as hemochromatosis in which the body absorbs too much iron from the food you eat. Spoon nails can also be associated with heart disease and hypothyroidism.

Terry’s nails

Terry’s nails where most of the nails look white except for a thin pink band at the tip. Wet nails are sometimes attributed to aging. In other cases, wet nails can be a sign of a serious underlying disease, such as liver disease, congestive heart failure, kidney failure or diabetes.

Bio lines

Deep, grooved beau’s lines that are seen all over the nail. Teeth form on the nail when growth in the area under the cuticle is interrupted by a severe injury or disease.
Conditions associated with Beau’s lines, including uncontrolled diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, as well as diseases associated with high fever (such as scarlet fever, measles, mumps, and pneumonia). Bio lines can also be a sign of zinc deficiency.


Onycholysis In this disease, the nail becomes loose and can be removed from the nail bed. The separated part of the nail is white, yellow or matte green. Detached nails are sometimes associated with damage or infection. In other cases, nail detachment is a reaction to a specific product, medication, or adhesive. Thyroid disease and psoriasis with marked scaly conditions on the skin can also cause nail detachment. .

Yellow Nail Syndrome

In yellow nail syndrome, the nail thickens and its new growth slows down. These results are due to a change in nail color to yellow. Nails with Yellow Nail Syndrome may be cuticle-free and detached from the nail bed. Yellow Nail Syndrome is a sign of respiratory diseases, such as chronic bronchitis, and Yellow Nail Syndrome can often be associated with swelling of the hands (lymphedema).

Fragile and brittle nails

Fragile nails are often just a sign of aging or long-term exposure to water or chemicals such as detergents and nail polishes. Nails can be strengthened by taking a biotin (vitamin B7) supplement, wearing gloves for all wet tasks, and often using a moisturizer.
Sometimes, brittle nails can be caused by the following:
Fungal infections of the nails, which can be cleared by taking a course of antifungal pills.
A skin condition called lichen planus, which can only affect the nails.
An overactive thyroid or a thyroid that does not work well does not produce enough or too much hormone.
Nail psoriasis is a long-term skin condition that can cause nails to become brittle.
The less common cause of reactive arthritis fractured nails is an unusual reaction of the immune system affecting joints, muscles and other parts of the body after an infection.

Loose nails

Loose nails It is normal for a toe to loosen and fall off after an injury to the foot. Loose nails are often caused by excessive nail makeup and cleaning under the nails with a sharp object.
Less likely, it may be a sign of an illness.
Fungal infections of the nails.
Nail psoriasis is a long-term disease that causes scaly, red patches on the skin.
Warts around the nails.
Overactive thyroid, the part of the thyroid gland in the neck that produces too much hormone.
Sarcoidosis is a disease in which a small mass of cells forms in the organs and tissues of the body.
Amyloidosis, which is characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrous protein at one or more points in the body.
Problem with the connective tissue fibers in the body that support the organs and tissues of the body.
Poor blood circulation due to smoking or Raynaud’s disease (in which the skin of the fingers turns white in response to cold)
Allergic reactions to medication (usually an antibiotic) or nail cosmetics.

Puncture Puncture or depression in the nail

Punctures or small dents on the surface of the nails can be a sign of any of the following diseases.
Psoriasis is a long-term disease that tends to cause red patches and flaking of the skin (10% -50% of patients with psoriasis have pitted nails)
Eczema is a long-term skin disease.
Reactive arthritis, in which the body’s immune system attacks joints, muscles and other parts of the body following an infection.
Alopecia areata is a piece of hair that comes and goes.


In paronychia the nails are painful, red and swollen. Paronychia is a name for inflammation around the nail that covers the skin and soft tissue of the nail.
And is often caused by infection, injury or burning. And it is about three times more common in women than men. Occasionally there is an underlying skin factor such as eczema or psoriasis or another medical condition such as diabetes or HIV.
Paronychia can be acute, lasting several hours, or chronic, lasting more than six weeks.
Acute paronychia
Acute paronychia is infectious and usually begins after a minor injury to the nail, such as chewing, picking, or applying nail polish and manicure. The affected area is red, hot, painful and swollen. Pus may be seen that can form around the nail and the nail may grow long.
Acute paronychia is often caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, although any number of germs can play a role. Treatment is with antibiotic cream or pills. Surgery can be done if there is a lot of pus.
Occasionally, acute paronychia is caused by the herpes virus.
Acute paronychia can be completely cleared within a few days with treatment, but if left untreated or unresponsive, it can become chronic in the long run.
Chronic paronychia
Chronic paronychia may start more slowly and is more difficult to get rid of. This happens to people who often put their hands in water or chemicals, such as cleaners, bartenders, caterers or fishmongers.
It may start on one side of the nail but can affect several fingers. The nail crease is swollen and may be red and painful. The nail plate gradually becomes thick and jagged and may become yellow or green and brittle.
The skin in chronic paronychia is often colonized by a mixture of yeast and bacteria. These germs grow on previously damaged skin.
You may find that doing things like keeping your hands dry and warm, using emollient creams, and avoiding biting and picking your nails helps.
See a doctor if the condition is severe. Depending on the type of paronychia cream or pill may be prescribed.
You may see a dermatologist for further research on the underlying skin condition or for contact sensitivity testing and treatment advice.

Nail problems that sometimes need treatment include:

Bacterial and fungal infections – Fungal infections account for about half of all nail diseases. They are more common in toenails because the toes are often confined to a hot, humid environment. Bacterial infections often occur due to nail damage, poor skin hygiene, nail biting, toe sucking, or repeated exposure to water. Give.
Tumor – Melanoma, although rare, can grow under the nail. Such melanoma may be mistaken for an injury so if a dark line is seen on the nail plate if the nail discoloration does not gradually improve or if the lines increase over time. You should consult a dermatologist.
Nails embedded in the flesh – Toenails sunken in the flesh caused by improper nail trimming, poor posture, digestive problems or tight shoes.
Small red or brown streaks under the nail – If you have dull red or brown streaks under the nail, it may be due to small damaged blood vessels. Just a few chips under one of the nails are most likely due to a nail injury. However, if many nails are affected, the chip may be a sign of lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, heart valve infection (endocarditis) or other underlying diseases.
Keep your nails clean and dry to prevent some nail problems. Do not damage the nail cuticle as it can cause infection.

Tips for having healthy nails

Keep your nails clean and dry to prevent bacteria from accumulating under the nails.
Cut your fingernails and toenails straight and slightly rounded in the center. These nails keep you strong and prevent toenails from sinking into the flesh.
When the toenails are thick and difficult to pick, soak the feet in warm salt water (a teaspoon of salt in one-eighth of a gallon of water) for five to 10 minutes, then apply urea cream or lactic acid. This softens the nails, making them easier to pick.
Wear appropriate shoes regularly. Tight shoes can cause toenails to sink into the flesh.
Do not self-treat toenails, especially if they are infected. See a dermatologist.
Do not bite your nails as you can transmit infectious organisms between your fingers to your mouth. Also, biting your nails can damage the skin around your fingers and allow infection to enter.
Nail problems are more common if you have diabetes or poor circulation. The first step in a nail problem is to see a dermatologist.
Do not let a nail technician cut or re-brand your cuticle. This may allow an infection to develop.
See a dermatologist if you have itching, burning, or any allergic reaction to nail cosmetics.
tipSee a doctor if your nails change color, texture, shape, or thickness and you do not know the cause (for example, you have not injured or bitten your nails).

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