Health

Girls are more prone to primary mitral regurgitation

Between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart, there is a valve called the mitral valve, which contains 2 openings. The name of this valve was chosen because it resembles a miter (a hat worn by Catholic bishops in their ceremonies). Rheumatic fever Mitral valve prolapse and mitral valve stenosis are 3 important mitral valve diseases.

Dr. Fereydon Introduction: Primary mitral regurgitation does not often cause problems for patients, but despite this issue, it usually causes concerns for patients, so for further guidance, simple language materials are provided. This disorder is more common in girls than boys. Most of the affected people are not aware of their valvular disorder, but some patients experience symptoms that will be explained below.

the reason

According to Salamat News, quoted by Nesl Farda newspaper, we know that the heart consists of four valves and the mitral valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle and consists of two leaflets, during ventricular contraction (systole). The appendages close normally and prevent the return of blood from the ventricle to the atrium, and during ventricular expansion (diastole), the valve opens and oxygenated blood is allowed to enter from the atrium to the ventricle. In people who have MVP, collagen is formed. The donor of this valve is abnormal and the structure of the valve is abnormally thick and large, therefore, during ventricular contraction, the defective appendages of the valve fall into the left atrium, and in more severe cases, it causes a brief return of ventricular blood into the atrium.
Inheritance
There is a hereditary factor in these patients, although the exact cause is not known. Affected people in the family may be tall, thin, and have long fingers and hands, and their backs are flat.

Prevalence

The prevalence rate in adults is 2.5%; While its exact prevalence in children is not known.

Clinical signs

The clinical symptoms of this disease vary greatly from person to person; while most patients do not have symptoms, some of them may have one or more of the following symptoms:
Fatigue is a common discomfort in these patients. Patients with mvp may have a disorder in the autonomic system, which causes disturbances in the regulation of heart rate and breathing, and during exercise, insufficient oxygen reaches the muscles and causes fatigue. In most patients with mitral prolapse, the heartbeat is not very uncomfortable, but rarely it may be severe and require treatment. Chest pain in some patients may be present and last. Symptoms such as anxiety, fear attacks, Dizziness and lightheadedness, depression and migraine headache may exist in these patients.

diagnosis

In the clinical examination of these patients, abnormal heart sounds can be heard with the phone (click or systolic murmur caused by MR). Echocardiography is the most useful and accurate diagnostic method for these patients. While this method does not cause any complications for the patient, it can accurately show the severity of the valve involvement and possible failure with the valve.

prevention

The disease itself cannot be prevented, but these patients are more susceptible to heart infection (endocarditis) than the general population, which means that simple oral and dental infections can easily sit on the abnormal surface of the valve and cause heart infection. Therefore, oral and dental hygiene and even refraining from chewing gum are recommended in these patients. Previously, antibiotics were given to MVP patients with mitral valve insufficiency before diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in dentistry and other surgeries to prevent heart infection, but today there is often no need for antibiotics, except in special cases such as replacing the mitral valve with a metal valve. which should be determined with the relevant doctor’s opinion.

Sport

Usually, there is no need to limit sports activity and even doing regular aerobic sports is useful, except in cases of MVP with severe mitral valve failure, in which case, isometric sports such as wrestling, weight lifting, etc. should be avoided. It is not recommended to participate in sports competitions in cases of moderate and severe mitral valve insufficiency, left ventricular dilatation or Marfan syndrome.
Complications of heart infection (endocarditis), progression of mitral insufficiency and causing heart failure, irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
Treatment Most of the patients do not need treatment and giving enough assurance that their disease is benign will relieve many of their discomfort. Alcohol and avoidance of undue fatigue and stress may benefit, but patients with severe prolapse, abnormal heartbeats, syncope attacks, severe palpitations, chest pain, and anxiety may require treatment. Beta-blockers such as metoprolol and propranolol are the drugs of choice. . In cases where the patient does not tolerate beta blockers well, verapamil or diltiazem can be used. In cases of MVP with mitral valve insufficiency, more drugs are usually required, and even in cases of severe mitral valve insufficiency, mitral valve replacement may be necessary.
Follow-up in patients without symptoms and without mitral regurgitation is usually a visit every two to five years, while in patients with symptoms or mitral regurgitation, the doctor’s visit should be done earlier, considering the patient’s condition. Considering that MVP It is a hereditary disease, echocardiography of first-degree relatives is necessary. Also, mitral valve prolapse is more common in connective tissue diseases, so it is necessary to evaluate these patients in terms of Marfan, Ahlerdanlos.
Precognition Most affected patients have excellent precognition, although some of these patients have mitral valve insufficiency, which in the long term can cause heart enlargement, heart failure, and heart irregularity, and in these patients, more examinations and treatment will usually be necessary. Death Sudden onset is rarely reported in these patients, but its prevalence and exact cause have not been determined.

Source: Salamat News

22 Mehr 1395 23:53

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