Violence against women at home should also be controlled. Teenagers and children who are exposed to domestic violence should be supported. The safety of this group in society should also be ensured. Most of these violences are observed in family or friends or among neighbors. This issue is very important for the authorities, unfortunately, we are witnessing the increase in the growth of such crimes among the people of the society.
Published statistics and reports show that a violence occurs in the country every 9 seconds. According to official statistics, 19.9% of domestic violence in Tehran is physical violence and 52.4% is psychological violence; Meanwhile, although violence has wide dimensions and is not limited to women, global statistics show that the share of women and children is much higher.
The share of hidden verbal violence is still ignored in official and unofficial statistics. This is while in some countries, the power structure has strengthened such patriarchal beliefs that it has practically provided a platform for all kinds of verbal and non-verbal violence. This is where the void of laws and support programs is felt to a great extent. The women’s deputy of the 11th government, in a bill whose details are still unknown, is seeking to pass a law to ensure women’s security against violence. It should be seen to what extent this plan can cover the dimensions of violence against women and guarantee the implementation of the laws governing this area.
On Monday evening, October 26, a meeting was held to review the dimensions of women’s security against violence at the Faculty of Social Sciences in Tehran. In this meeting, which focused on identifying the dimensions of violence against women and the legal solutions to support women who have experienced violence, Fatemeh Zulqader, a representative of Tehran and a member of the women’s faction of the 10th parliament, Afsana Tausli, a member of the faculty of the Women’s Studies Department of Al-Zahra University, and Dr. Hossein Mirmohammad Sadeghi, the head of the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology of Shahid Beheshti University and the director of UNESCO Human Rights, Peace and Democracy Chair in Shahid Beheshti University gave a lecture on legal, sociological issues and the review of domestic and international documents in the field of investigating the dimensions of violence against women.
Fatemeh Zulqader, a member of the 10th Parliament, at the beginning of this meeting, discussed the approach of the 10th Parliament to the plans and bills to ensure the security of women against violence and said: The bill to ensure the security of women against violence is supposed to be presented to the parliament in the next one to two months. to be The bill and plan prepared by the parliament itself will be presented in the floor and, God willing, it will be approved, and we hope to put the bill for the protection of children and teenagers on the agenda along with this law.
He continued: The approach of the 10th Parliament is positive in supporting women who have experienced violence, and the priority of the women’s faction is to deal with the bill to ensure women’s security against violence and approve the bill to protect children and adolescents.
Determine the dimensions of violence in Iran
In another part of this meeting, Afsana Tausli, a university professor and scholar of women’s studies, examined the dimensions of the issue of violence and said: One of the major issues that we must address is to know that we are dealing with a social issue that the society is sensitive to. is, we are facing
He continued: Providing psychological and instinctual bases that help in drafting legal laws that protect women against violence can to some extent justify the conditions for the formation and formulation of these laws, and otherwise, without knowing these bases and the psychological and sociological contexts of the occurrence of violence, We cannot follow up the discussion of support and the implementation of laws and approval of bills will not advance anything.
He emphasized: It seems that the discussion of violence is interfering with other matters. Women’s activists should be sensitive to this issue. The issue that, for example, going to stadiums can be considered violence against women or not, should be investigated. We need to reach a classification about the different dimensions of violence against women in Iran.
He classified violence into different categories and continued: domestic violence (physical, psychological and verbal) and social violence (violence in the workplace and public spheres). It seems that only in this way can we come to a precise definition of violence. In England, violence against women in the workplace shows a figure equal to 70%. These violences are not all physical and many of them are mental violence and fall into the field of pornography, gender stereotypes and even inappropriate looks. If we check in our own society, we will not get accurate statistics because there are no statistics in this regard at all. The low statistics on workplace violence are surprising, and the reason is that it often goes unreported.
According to this university professor, the pyramid of organizational authority that exists in our society has greatly affected this situation. Tausli said: A woman who is the secretary of an organization is very unlikely to be abused by her peers; This violence is usually applied by higher levels. The problem is that if the woman files a complaint, and assuming that the same person is dealt with, she will be fired when she returns to her workplace. The lack of job security does not allow women to express their complaints. If he expresses it, he must prove it, and proving violence, especially sexual violence in Iran, is extremely difficult because it requires a witness, and another issue is its taboo nature, and the finger of accusation is pointed at the female victims by the women themselves. It means that women themselves are effective in the continuation of this process; Therefore, all these cases should be considered for the law to find an executive guarantee.
Violent women are the most referred to forensic medicine
Hossein Mirmohammad Sadeghi, professor of criminal law and criminology, discussed the legal and international dimensions of violence against women in another part of the meeting. Mir Mohammad Sadeghi pointed to the United Nations statistics on the criminalization of violence and said: Of course, the discussion related to violence has different dimensions and it is very important in relation to the issue of violence against women in international criminal law and domestic law. One of the issues that the United Nations presents in its statistics is that the biggest disaster that humanity is facing today is the growth of crime. They used to raise five percent per year, which has probably increased now. The growth of crime is even higher than the population growth and the economic growth of countries, and in the meantime, the discussion of violence is defined in connection with crime; Of course, violence is a ubiquitous issue and is not specific to one country.
He described violence as follows: “Violence means anything that humiliates a person and makes him feel inferior to another person.” Mir Mohammad Sadeghi further said: Of course, you can discuss this violence in other fields as well. One is domestic violence, which, however, we face a high percentage of this type of violence in all societies today. In Iran, the most referrals to forensic medicine were women who were subjected to violence. In a period of three years, which is related to several years ago, two and a half million people referred to forensic medicine in Iran, of which 500 thousand people were victims, especially victims of domestic violence.
According to him, women’s reluctance to report domestic and environmental violence naturally adds to the continuation of this black trend. That is, sometimes it can be said that the number is more than these, but due to not reporting the incident, it is not dealt with. Reforming the judicial system can of course help to report the cases of violence against women.
The need for police support for victims of violence
The chairman of the UNESCO chair in Iran, in the continuation of his speech, noted: Unfortunately, some of our institutions have a masculine atmosphere. The police are also largely the same; Therefore, women who are victims of these violence often do not feel very comfortable to go to the police and declare that they have been subjected to violence; Therefore, adjusting the male atmosphere of the police and the judicial system can help women who are victims of violence go to the judicial authorities and the police for help. Creating safe places for women who are subjected to violence at home means that they should not imagine that they have to endure violence because they have nowhere to go and ask for help, and they can understand the extent of these violences and the minimum tolerance of women towards the compulsion to disclose the case of violence. have to reduce In the meantime, we should not ignore verbal violence against women in public environments, offices and government and non-government organizations, these should be controlled and we should be aware of what we say.
Mir Mohammad Sadeghi also pointed to the number of sexual crimes as one of the types of violence against women and said: sexual violence, which is one of the most common crimes, is in line with crimes that are less talked about, and in this context, we should consider two cases; One is the feeling of embarrassment and shame that is created in the victim to report the matter, and the other is that the frequency of this type of violence is higher among family and relatives.
Assaults and assaults by strangers on women comprise a smaller percentage of violence that women often experience in family or friends environments or among their neighbors. This reduces the willingness to report.
He pointed to the recent developments in the international law system regarding sexual crimes against women and said: The recent development in international criminal law shows that before this rape and sexual violence was a crime against the honor and dignity of women and a crime by itself. which is against the honor of women, it is given less attention than a crime that has a sexual and physical aspect. Now this view of evolution and in other areas the definition of sexual violence has increased and includes any unwanted contact; Even in some countries, the issue of sexual assault by a husband to a wife has been discussed for a long time and is known as a type of violence. In England, for many years, there was a presumption that a woman, by entering into a marriage contract, has already declared her consent to have any sexual relationship with her husband, and therefore any relationship that the husband has with her, can no longer be included in the title of “rape” or rape. And the courts started giving opinions that prove the opposite of this case. Later, the “Sexual Offenses Acts” passed this law in 2003, in which a husband can also be convicted of committing sexual assault against his wife if he has unwanted sex with her.
Emphasizing the legal aspects of defense against the aggressor, this university professor pointed out the different dimensions of women’s defense against violence and said: “A marginal problem arises here, which is the issue of women’s defense against violence.” We have had many cases that go back to the issue of women’s defense against sexual assaults, and sometimes retribution has been given to those women.
He mentioned the case of Afsana Nowrozi, who killed her to defend herself against a sexual assault by her husband’s friend, and after the retribution verdict was issued by holding several appeal courts, the verdict was reversed and she was not retaliated against. Mir Mohammad Sadeghi said about this case: In this case, the friend of this woman’s wife, who was trying to assault her, was attacked by her with a knife and killed.
Afsana Nowrozi was sentenced to retribution, but after seven to eight years in prison, he was released with various appeals. Another case was a 14-year-old girl named Razia, who attacked a 17-year-old boy in self-defense for a sexual assault and broke his jugular vein by breaking a soda bottle, and was charged with premeditated murder, or the case of a woman. A village where one of his neighbors disturbed him and because of this, blinded this man’s eyes with acid, and the question of revenge for both his eyes was raised later. The reason why the courts issued these sentences at that time is an accepted legal reason, and that is that the defense should be defined according to the crime and to the extent that it is necessary to prevent aggression, but our argument was always that we should especially in Avoid dealing with zero or hundred in these cases; For example, in some cases, the judicial system dealt with a person who had the conditions of legitimate defense, saying that we have nothing to do with you; Because you defended yourself instead of the police and we thanked him, but if there was not the slightest condition and we felt that the defense did not fit the crime, we would suddenly go from zero to 100 and say that this is a common killer and should be punished. We always said that we should accept the middle ground and that if a person really defends himself in the form of an attack, but some do not meet the conditions of legitimate defense, we should tell him that he has not acquitted you, but we will not retaliate and we will be content with a few years of imprisonment. Our argument was that this procedure should be changed.
Fortunately, the judicial procedure changed and the Islamic Penal Code in 1992 followed this procedure and explicitly included this issue in the law that if the principle of defense is clear but the other conditions are not met, the retribution will be canceled, but there are other punishments. According to this professor of criminal law, in addition to the laws that are drafted and approved in the field of women’s safety, the police should provide conditions for the safety of women who have suffered violence. At the end of his speech, Mir Mohammad Sadeghi said: If the atmosphere of the police departments is removed from this masculine mode, it can encourage many women who have experienced violence to go to these centers and gain more public trust in the safety of this space to file complaints.
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