Important scientific and knowledgeable materials in the field of sperm

What are the characteristics of semen? What are the characteristics of standard semen and how can we find out its health? What components does this fluid consist of? We want to pay more attention to it. Join us.

Semen is usually white or gray, but sometimes it may be yellow. Pink or red semen is the reason for the presence of blood in it. Although this is rarely a sign of a serious problem, men whose semen appears to have blood stains should see a doctor.

What is semen?
Each milliliter of semen typically contains millions of sperm.
Semen is a white or gray liquid that comes out of the urethra (the tube that is located in the penis) during ejaculation.
Each milliliter of semen normally contains millions of sperm, but most of it is glandular secretions in the male reproductive system.
The purpose of semen is only to reproduce, as a means of transporting sperm to the female reproductive system.
Although ejaculation is associated with orgasm and sexual pleasure, erection and orgasm are controlled by various mechanisms and do not need to ejaculate to have pleasurable sex.

What is semen made of?
Semen is made up of secretions from various glands, only 5% of which come from the testicles.

Table 1: LimbHi That To Production Liquid منی Help میکردن


Percentage From Total

Testicles and epididymis


My bags


Prostate gland


Onion gland – urethra and urine


Testicles and epididymis

It takes 70 days for sperm to be produced in the testicles. Each sperm is made from a cell called a spermatogonia inside the testicle.

Spermatogonia proliferate to produce spermatocytes, which then turn into spermatids. The sperm builds its famous tail, and this cell gradually becomes able to move by waving its tail.

The sperm eventually turns into a sperm. This process takes 60 days, after which it takes 10 to 14 days for the sperm to pass through the duct of each testicle and its mature sperm tube, the epididymis, before it can leave the body with semen.

The fluid made by the testicles contains many chemicals but is high in testosterone.

My bags

The seminal vesicles usually make up more than half of the semen volume. Their secretions are rich in a sugar called fructose, which is an important nutrient for sperm.

They also produce another substance that causes semen to clot (sticky or jelly-like) after ejaculation, which is useful for reproducing and holding semen in a woman’s cervix.

Prostate gland

Prostate secretions contain a variety of chemicals, the most interesting of which is prostate-specific antigen (PSA).

PSA is an enzyme, a catalyst that causes biochemical reactions, and in this case it is a type of enzyme called coagulase.

The main function of PSA is to liquefy the clotted semen so that the sperm can escape and swim towards it to fertilize the egg in the female reproductive system.

Prostate gland cells produce PSA, some of which penetrates the bloodstream and is also found in semen.

The larger and stronger the prostate gland, the more PSA is seen in the blood.

Men with large, non-cancerous prostate glands usually have higher levels of PSA in their blood on average. Its level is very low in the blood of men with prostate cancer. But PSA levels can be normal in both cases. This condition can be a sign of the size and activity of the prostate gland, but it is not a specific test to diagnose prostate cancer.

Onion gland – urethra and urine

The secretions of these glands lubricate the male reproductive system, but can also contain antibodies that affect fertility.

These antisperm antibodies can prevent the sperm from moving properly and fertilizing the egg.

How is natural semen?

Semen is usually white or gray, but sometimes it may be yellow. Pink or red semen is the reason for the presence of blood in it.

Although this is rarely a sign of a serious problem, men whose semen appears to have blood stains should see a doctor.

Semen clots immediately after ejaculation and forms a viscous, jelly-like fluid. It liquefies again after 5 to 40 minutes.

It is perfectly normal for semen to form jelly-like globules, and this is not a sign of any health or fertility problems. If semen cannot clot and then liquefy again, it can be a sign of fertility problems.

The average volume of semen produced in ejaculation is 2 to 5 ml. Volumes below 1.5 ml and above 5.5 ml are abnormal.

Low semen volume can be due to frequent ejaculations, and high ejaculation is usually seen for a long time after not ejaculating.

The World Health Organization provides a definition of normal natural counting:

1. Sperm concentration should be at least 20 million per milliliter.

۲. The total volume of semen should be at least 2 ml.

3. The total number of sperm in the ejaculate should be at least 40 million.

4. At least 75% of sperm must be alive (it is normal for up to 25% of them to be dead)

5. At least 30% of sperm should have a natural shape and form.

6. At least 30% of the sperm must float rapidly forward.

7. At least 50% of the sperm must move forward.

It is surprising to know the number of dead and abnormal sperm that can be present in a normal sample.

Measuring the number of working sperm is very technical and the result can be influenced by various factors such as the time between ejaculation and measuring the semen sample, as well as how the semen was stored during transport to the laboratory.

Sperm counts in a particular person can vary even over several days. It is important to provide at least two, preferably three or more, samples for evaluation, two to three weeks apart. A single sample is not enough to assess semen quality.

Sperm count is only a sign of fertility and a normal count will not guarantee success.

In addition, the higher the number of sperm, the better, because too high a sperm count can cause fertility problems.

Is male fertility declining?

Various articles have reported that sperm count is declining and male fertility is declining. One of the most famous of these studies was a study published in 1992 by Carlson et al., Which reviewed 61 studies conducted since 1938. The results of this study showed that the average sperm count decreased by 42%.

But their analysis was flawed in various ways and the results of their study are not very reliable.

Numerous other studies on semen quality have been published since then that have yielded conflicting results.

Some of these studies suggest that men’s sperm counts are declining, and some claim that there has been no change. But even if sperm counts are declining, the effect on fertility is unclear.

There is currently no specific document for it.

Do environmental factors affect male fertility today?

Today there are more environmental factors than 50 years ago that can affect male fertility. These factors include:

1. Endogenous decomposers

2. Toxic pollutants

3. Sexually transmitted diseases

4. Zinc deficiency

5. Alcoholism

6. Cigarettes

7. Consumption of anabolic steroids

8. Ionizing radiation

9. Satellite jamming waves

Endogenous decomposers are chemicals in the environment that cause health problems because of their ability to negatively affect the body’s endogenous system.

Numerous industrial pollutants can also affect fertility, just like smoking and alcohol.

Table ۲: pollutantHi That Possible Is Caused Difficulties Fertility To be




Plastics industry


Industrial and household detergents

Bisophenol A

Food coating varnish, dental treatments

Organochlorine pesticides (Lindane, DDT, etc.)

Consumed in cereals, fruits and cabbage


Waste paper production


Fungicides used in food


Soy products

How can fertility be maintained?

1. Follow a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet and regular exercise.

۲. Do not smoke or use drugs.

3. Do not use or limit the consumption of alcohol.

4. Try to avoid industrial and occupational hazards by following safety precautions and wearing protective clothing. It is your job to discover what that is and to bring it about.

5. Avoid sexually transmitted diseases by having healthy sex and using condoms.

Current evidence does not show that wearing underwear or exposing the testicles to cold water improves semen quality.

An interesting Dutch study has shown that wearing tight leather pants and tight plastic underwear together affects sperm motility, but neither alone has this effect.

There is some evidence that stress lowers the quality of semen, possibly due to hormonal changes that occur in the body.

Causes of stress in modern life is one of the concerns about fertility that can itself increase stress. If you think you may have a fertility problem, it’s a good idea to talk to your family doctor.

The chance of getting pregnant in a healthy young couple is 20% per month, so it is not uncommon to be three to six months before pregnancy.

It makes sense to do some initial assessments after six months of unprotected sex.

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