The prostate is a small gland located below the bladder that surrounds the beginning of the urethra. The urethra is the duct that directs urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. This gland is located below the bladder, where urine comes out of it, and in front of the rectum. The normal prostate has a soft consistency on examination and no mass. This gland, which performs various functions, consists of two parts that are covered by a layer of tissue.
What does the prostate do?
One of the functions of the prostate is to help control urination by putting pressure on the beginning of the urethra. The prostate also secretes a fluid that keeps male gametes, or sperm, active. This fluid moisturizes and makes the urethra slippery. This fluid is alkaline in nature and also has the nutrients needed to keep sperm active. The actions that the prostate performs show that although men are almost infertile without a prostate, their absence has little effect on a person’s life.
What are the symptoms of prostate disease?
Difficulty urinating, feeling urgent or frequent urination.
* Blood in urine or genital fluids.
Burning or painful urination.
* Problems with normal sexual activity.
Intermittent stiffness and pain in the lower back, pelvis or upper thighs.
Urinary incontinence or drip of urine.
What diseases affect the prostate?
It affects three groups of prostate diseases:
Benign prostate enlargement
Inflammation of the prostate or prostatitis
Prostate cancer, which affects one-third of men.
What is benign prostatic hyperplasia?
In young men, the prostate is about the size of a walnut. The size of this gland also increases with age. This increase in size is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
When does it start?
This process starts at the age of 30 and most of the time the symptoms appear after the age of 50. Prostate enlargement, which is more common in older people, causes symptoms.
What are the symptoms?
An enlarged prostate can put pressure on the exit of the bladder and the beginning of the urethra. This can cause problems urinating. Urinary flow is slow and frequent urination occurs, which occurs especially at night. Urinary retention may occur. More serious problems such as urinary tract infection or complete obstruction of the urethra and kidney damage may also occur in some cases.
What is its prevalence?
This disease is very common. Half of men over the age of 50 show signs of an enlarged prostate, but 10 percent need medication and surgery. Enlarged prostate is diagnosed by a doctor.
Is this disease related to cancer?
No. This disease is quite benign and has nothing to do with prostate cancer.
What is prostatitis?
It is more common in young to middle-aged men. Pain occurs intermittently and is difficult to diagnose because the symptoms vary from person to person. It may cause burning or pain when urinating and the bladder may not be completely empty, which can be seen in other conditions. 10 to 12% of men experience these symptoms.
What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer is a malignant growth of prostate cells that usually grows slowly and inside the prostate over the years and causes few symptoms during this time. But over time, it expands beyond the prostate. It may also reach distant tissues such as bones, lungs and liver. Signs and symptoms depend on the progression of the disease. It is the most common malignancy leading to death after lung cancer.
Predisposing factors include:
Age: More than 70% of affected men are over 65 years old.
Genetic factors, in fact, increase the risk of infection if close relatives of the person are infected.
Prevention of prostate cancer
1_ For men over 40 years of age, annual screening (PSA through blood tests) and examination by a doctor are recommended for screening for this disease.
2- Diet: According to recent research, it has been seen that consumption of some foods such as selenium, vitamin D, soy, green tea, lycopene (a substance found in tomatoes) has been effective in preventing and even reducing the growth of this tumor.
It is also recommended not to consume certain foods such as sugars, starches and fats, especially LDL or harmful fats, to prevent the disease.