In this section, there are questions and answers about AIDS that may be a question for many of you. These questions and answers are very useful for those who want to have information in this field.
Does anyone living with HIV have AIDS?
The HIV virus is the cause of AIDS and AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection. It should be noted that not everyone living with HIV is necessarily infected with AIDS, but must meet a set of criteria for the AIDS index to say that they are infected with AIDS.
Only half of people living with HIV develop AIDS within 10 years. This time interval varies from person to person and is related to many factors, including a person’s health status and health habits. Today, with the help of some drugs, this distance can be extended.
How do I know if people around me are infected with HIV?
You can never know for sure just by looking around. Any seemingly healthy person you meet at work, school, sports stadium, street, etc. may be a carrier of the virus without even realizing it, and while it looks really healthy, it can be transmitted to another person. The tests that are commonly used to diagnose this infection are based on the search for antibodies produced by the body against HIV. The level of these antibodies is detectable in most people within 3 months after infection (on average, about 25 days after contact). But in some cases this time may reach 6 months. Therefore, it is now recommended that the person return for a test 3 months after the possible call. A very important point to keep in mind is that you should not expose yourself or others to HIV during these 3 months.
What is meant by healthy sexual contact?
This means that you are protected from sexually transmitted infections such as HIV if and only:
A. If you do not have sexual contact at all.
B. If you have sex with only one person and none of you are infected with HIV and have no other sexual partner.
C – If you use a condom correctly.
How effective are latex condoms in preventing HIV transmission?
According to research on healthy people who have had sex with people who carry the virus, 98% of those who use latex condoms regularly and correctly are not infected. Therefore, latex condoms, if used regularly, can greatly reduce the risk of HIV transmission.
Does open mouth kissing transmit HIV?
Kissing through the mouth is less dangerous because saliva contains very little HIV. However, in cases where the kiss with the mouth open for a long time, it may cause scratches in the mouth or lips and transmit the virus. In addition, some people occasionally have light bleeding from the gums or small sores in the mouth that can transmit HIV.
Avoiding suspicious sex is the best way to prevent getting HIV (and other sexually transmitted diseases), but those who are sexually active should at least follow these tips:
A. Intercourse only with a healthy sexual partner.
B- Using latex condoms every time.
Is HIV transmitted through casual contact?
No. The virus is not transmitted during daily activities in the workplace. Including :
A. Daily social contacts include shaking hands, rubbing hands and hugging friends.
B – Sports and work.
C- Sleeping in a room or breathing in common air (work environment, car, etc.).
D- Shared food or beverage containers, door handles, use of shared water for washing, swimming in the shared pool.
E – Salivation, sneezing and coughing.
C – body sweat and tears.
G – mosquito or other insect bites.
What are the common signs and symptoms of HIV infection?
Common signs and symptoms of HIV infection include:
Infection (brain, blood and genitals)
Severe weight loss
Oral mucosal lesions
Common HIV diseases include:
Meningitis (infection of the layers of the brain)
Many people infected with sexually transmitted infections and AIDS have no symptoms of the disease while they can spread the infection to others. So at any suspicious sexual contact, consider the risk of infection.
Should I get tested for HIV immediately after a suspicious contact?
After a suspicious call, it is usually recommended in most countries to have two tests at intervals of at least 2 weeks to 6 months.
In Europe and North America: It is recommended for the first time two weeks after suspicious sexual contact. The first HIV test is performed by PCR test, which is able to search and detect the virus directly in the blood two weeks after the arrival of the virus. The reliability of this test is only 95%. Therefore, for the second time, 12 weeks later, an ELISA test is recommended to measure the amount of antibodies (antibodies) that the blood of an infected person has produced against HIV.
In Iran: The first time is recommended between 8 to 12 weeks later. The ELISA test is usually performed in Iran, which is the global standard in hospitals and blood bank centers. Because the rate and amount of antibody production in a person’s body may vary, it is recommended to repeat it 6 months later.
Where can I go for an HIV test?
In Iran, refer to triangular clinics and blood transfusion centers. In most of these centers, testing and consulting are done for free and anonymously (keeping the name and receiving a code number).
In Europe and North America, see your family doctor and ask for an HIV test. If your doctor has referred you to a lab, this test will be done in all laboratories. There are also AIDS relief centers in many countries, such as Austria, where you can apply for the test anonymously.
If you have a “checkup” and mood tests, will you be tested for HIV?
AIDS testing is not a common medical test (checkup) except in special cases. Therefore, the exact name of the HIV test must be listed on the form for the laboratory to perform it. So if you want to get rid of AIDS, you need to talk to your doctor exactly.
If you donate blood to the Blood Transfusion Organization of Iran, will you be tested for HIV? Is the result usable and valid?
Yes, and the result is valid.
At the Blood Transfusion Organization of Iran, special tests (Western blot and HIV-ELISA) are performed on blood. Of course, it should be remembered that the HIV ELISA test is not 100% sensitive and accurate. The accuracy of the ELISA test is about 97.5%, which of course varies depending on the test method as well as the company organizing the kit. This means that the test detects only 97.5% of patients, in other words, if a person is infected, there is a 97.5% chance that the test will be positive.
In any case, a person who has a positive ELISA test needs to be re-checked by Western blot, which is a more accurate method. Laboratories usually do this before the results are announced. Therefore, the patient’s response, if positive, is reliable because it is checked several times.
If you masturbate (male or female), is there a risk of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases?
You will not become infected with HIV through masturbation. HIV will only be transmitted if two people have a relationship that leads to blood contact or sexual discharge (sex, sharing a syringe, etc.) and one of them is already infected with HIV.
If you kiss someone personally, is there a risk of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases?
Normal kissing does not transmit the virus, and if deep and open kissing is meant if there is a sore in the mouth or on the gums or lips, there is a risk of HIV transmission, although the risk is low and the statistics are accurate. There is no such thing.
If you have oral sex, is there a risk of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases?
If there is an ulcer in the mouth of either sexual partner or an ulcer during intercourse, this is possible, but accurate statistics are not available.
In case of superficial sexual contact, is there a risk of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases?
Sexual contact with healthy skin does not transmit HIV.
If you use a condom to have sex with an infected person, is there still a risk of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases?
If the condom is healthy and sexual discharge does not come out, the chance of transmission is zero. Of course, it should always be remembered that there is a risk of transmission during sexual intercourse with an infected person. Condoms are strongly recommended for people who are not completely sure about their health.
If you do not use a condom in sexual intercourse with an infected person, is there a possibility of infection in the first intercourse?
Yes, even in the first relationship this chance is about 0.9% of women to men and about 1.1% of men to women.
If a condom breaks during sexual intercourse, is there still a risk of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases?
If the condom breaks, there is a possibility of contamination.
What is the risk of contracting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases if you have sex with prostitutes?
Naturally, the percentage of risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV among this group (for both the client and the prostitute) due to having multiple sexual partners and the unfamiliarity of each of them with the blood history of the sexual partner and also the history of sexual partners The previous one is very high. Unfortunately, there are no accurate statistics that accurately define the risk.
A very important factor in this case is control.
If you are in a country where this is legal (such as in some European countries) and you have a relationship with people with a health certificate in the form of “safer sex”, the amount of risk you are exposed to It is not as severe as it is in the so-called underground and secret methods, which is due to the regular health control of these people.
For example, in Iran, in case of sexual contact between these people (customer and self-selling person), the percentage of risk to this group is very high. One of the most important reasons for this is three important problems among people who have turned to this job as a job:
1. Lack of access to adequate and appropriate health services.
2. Lack of health control and regular health examinations.
3. Failure to perform mandatory health tests during regular periods.
In the sexual relationship of an infected person (man with woman, man with man), which one is more likely to be infected?
The risk of HIV transmission is always higher for gay men and almost twice as high as for non-gay men. (The risk of getting the virus is higher among gay men than in the passive.)
The rate of infection transmission from man to woman is about 1.1%.
The percentage of infection transmission from woman to man is about 0.9%.
If you are involved in sexual intercourse between two men, is it possible that the perpetrator is also infected with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases?
Yes, it is possible, but it is less than a person who is passive. It should always be borne in mind that the probability of transmission in gay men is high.
It is interesting that sometimes there is a special view among groups of people in Iran that only men who are active in male-to-male sex are considered homosexual and men who are active in male-to-male relationships are considered homosexual. Are not recognized as gay. Therefore, they think that the danger threatens only the passive person. While scientifically and in most cultures, every man and woman (subject or object) who tend to be homosexual is known as homosexual.