Ovarian cysts develop for several reasons. The most common type is the follicular cyst, which results from the growth of a follicle. When a cyst causes symptoms, pain in the abdomen or pelvis is the most common symptom.
Polycystic ovary is a disease that seems to be plaguing many young girls today and has caused them to have fertility problems.
Maybe 30 years ago, this disease was seen only in fat women, but now thin young girls even at the age of 17 get it! Maybe you have experienced the fear of ovarian cysts by moving a few days of your menstrual period and growing some extra hair on your chin or chest and increasing your acne.
When the environment of the body becomes male!
Polycystic ovary is the same as “Stein Lunstein” disease, which in the old days was known by Mr. “Stein Lunstein” with the symptoms of “hirsutism” (increased hair growth), increased facial acne, oligomenorrhea (low number of periods) or amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) and infertility. became.
At the time when this disease was mentioned, it was more specific to obese people, and the cause of its occurrence is the disruption of the balance of hormones in women, in such a way that the level of male hormones either increases directly in the blood or the receptors become more sensitive to these hormones, and the environment of the women’s body It becomes a male environment. Ovulation is usually disturbed in this male environment. In such cases, we see the lack of ovulation or reduced ovulation and the increase of male symptoms, including the growth of beard and mustache hair and other parts of the body, and male pattern hair loss on both sides of the temples.
What are the symptoms?
Not every person with polycystic disease may have all the symptoms listed for it. This disease has a wide spectrum. For example, there may be only tiny follicles around the ovary with a distance between 2 and 9 mm, and the patient does not have any symptoms, or someone who does not have a period at all in a year, and his whole body is covered with extra hair, and the hair on his head has decreased to a great extent. has been
This disease usually starts from the beginning with the irregularity of periods, in such a way that the periods fall behind by one to two weeks and finally ends in a place where the patient only gets periods by using progesterone pills or ampoules.
The amount of bleeding during menstruation depends on the position of the patient in this spectrum.
Some affected people are very obese and their female hormone levels are usually high. In these people, the thickness of the inner layer of the uterus increases, as a result, their bleeding can be heavy. There are other patients who have periods every 2 to 3 months, and because they do not ovulate for several months, the inner surface of their uterus thickens. This thickening of the endometrium or the inner layer makes it very intense after a few months when the period occurs. The situation is the opposite for some people, that is, the patient has a period every 2 to 3 weeks.
In these people, the level of hormones does not rise and fall regularly due to ovulation, and because one of the estrogen or progesterone hormones suddenly drops in the middle of the cycle, the patient bleeds and thinks he has had a period, while this bleeding is not a period and is related to the lack of menstruation. It is the balance of hormones.
Even thin 16-year-old girls can get infected!
Polycystic disease can be hereditary and congenital, especially in families with hereditary obesity. Currently, its prevalence has increased much more than 30 years ago. In the past, this disease was seen only in obese patients, but nowadays even thin people may suffer from highly resistant polycystics. Unfortunately, nowadays, there are few people who do not have these cysts in their ultrasound and do not have any symptoms. Only those who exercise regularly and do not eat fast food and fatty food and take care of their body will not suffer from these symptoms.
Most people with polycystic disease see a doctor when they experience symptoms. Young girls suffering from this disease, who have just had their period and are usually thin, are less likely to notice its symptoms, so most of the clients related to this disease are over 16 years old. These 16- to 17-year-olds usually have regular periods after 4 to 5 years, but they still experience menstrual irregularities and amenorrhea. In general, it can be said that the age group of patients is mostly between 16 and 36 years.
Patients with this disease do not become sterile
This disease can be diagnosed by considering clinical symptoms, ultrasound and certain tests. When a patient presents with symptoms of hirsutism, acne, irregular periods, or even infertility, tests are requested on the second day of the menstrual cycle to determine hormonal disorders. In these people, the levels of pituitary hormones LH and FSH are usually disturbed, so that the ratio of LH to FSH becomes more than 2. In addition to this, there is another important factor called AMH (Anti Mullerian Hormone) that the normal level of this hormone is usually between 5 and 5.5, but its level reaches up to 12 in people with polycystic disease.
In the ultrasound, especially if it is done through the vagina, there are usually many follicles under 10 mm around the ovary. Some doctors give false fear to patients that sufferers of this disease will never get pregnant, while the patient may not even have regular periods and severe symptoms. This comment scares the patient when polycystic disease should be well explained and addressed. In many cases, sufferers of this disease either with diet or with treatment finally get pregnant.
Has the doctor prescribed you anti-diabetic pills?!
Apart from weight loss and regular exercise, drug treatments can also be used to treat this disease according to the patient’s symptoms. One of these drugs is metformin, or the antidiabetic drug. Metformin facilitates the entry of sugar into the cell, which makes the person not always hungry and feels full. As a result, the patient’s weight will decrease. This weight loss improves the metabolism of hormones and reduces body fat, as a result, sex hormones accumulate less inside these fats. It has been seen many times that by prescribing metformin for a few months, the patient’s period was fixed or the patient who was infertile became pregnant on his own.
In the end, if none of the treatment methods, including the use of metformin, dexamethasone, diet, exercise, etc. did not work and the patient could not reduce his weight and regularize his periods, we are forced to use laparoscopy. In laparoscopy, we usually burn follicles that are small with an electrode. Of course, in the past, unfortunately, doctors removed a piece of the ovary and this caused the level of male hormones to drop and the person became pregnant.
Very simple drugs such as spironolactone can also be used to remove excess hair or hirsutism. This drug is diuretic and increases urination, and in addition to reducing unwanted hair, it also improves hair growth. On the other hand, if the patient has acne, usually local anti-acne drugs or even doxycycline can be used. If the acne is very severe, sometimes the patient has to use a medicine called roaccutane, which contains retinoic acid, under the supervision of a dermatologist. Of course, this drug should be taken according to liver tests.