Health

Understanding the causes of breast cancer

How does breast cancer come to you? What causes it in patients? What are its different causes? What preventive recommendations should we consider to deal with it?

Associate Professor of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, referring to the risk factors for breast cancer, explained the main symptoms of this cancer.

“Cells are the brick-like structure of the body’s tissues that make up the organs of the body,” Payam Azadeh said of breast cancer. Normal cells grow and then divide to form new cells in the body. As cells grow, they age or become damaged, and cell death occurs.

“But this cell death does not happen to cancer cells, and they multiply when the body does not need new cells.” Also, unlike normal cells, cancer cells remain in one part of the body and tend to spread to other parts of the body. This process is called metastasis.

Associate Professor of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences continued: “It is uncontrollable growth and the property of distant spread that causes fear of cancer.” Cancer cells can also replace normal tissues in the body, and in addition to breast tissue, they can also occur in lung, liver, bone and brain tissues.

Noting that the cause of breast cancer is not known, Azadeh said: “However, a number of risk factors increase the risk of breast cancer.” Being a woman and getting older are the most common risk factors for breast cancer. Of course, other risk factors such as the presence of breast cancer in a family member, especially if the cancer occurs at a young age, as well as the onset of menstruation at a very young age is another cause of breast cancer.

He continued: “Stopping menstruation at a very old age and a history of taking hormonal pills for a long time and when the first childbirth occurs at an advanced age are other risk factors for breast cancer.” Therefore, to reduce the risk of cancer in these special groups, there are a number of surgical or pharmacological strategies that a person can get acquainted with with medical advice.

Referring to the common types of breast cancer, the associate professor of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences said: “Based on the fact that the tumor is limited to the ducts of the breast or lobule, it has spread beyond it and is divided into non-invasive and If it has spread beyond the breast ducts, it is called invasive cancer.

Referring to the need for breast cancer screening, Azadeh said: “All women are candidates for breast cancer screening because screening causes cancer to be diagnosed in the early stages, so the person should have regular breast examinations and any fluid coming out of the nipple or change The shape or form of the breast skin is sensitive and consult a doctor if you notice any of these symptoms.

“Breast cancer may also be detected in screening tests. The principles of this screening are determined by age, medical condition and other factors,” he said. Screening also includes raising awareness of the symptoms of breast cancer and diagnostic tests that detect cancer in its early stages.

Associate Professor of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, noting that breast cancer is the most common cancer in women but is very rare in men, said: “In women, after lung cancer, the second leading cause of death due to cancer is breast cancer, and if The prevalence and incidence of breast cancer have increased in recent years, but mortality has declined markedly.

“Screening is one of the most important issues in the prevention and treatment of cancer, and if additional results are found in the results of a screening test or examination,” he said. it is needed.

Azadeh stated: Breast tissue examination is the only way to diagnose breast cancer definitively. Acupuncture of the breast tissue is a common method of diagnosis, but it causes minor pain, so additional tests are requested by your doctor to check for the possibility of distant spread of cancer.

“In some cases, genetic testing can tell us if there is a possibility of cancer recurrence,” said an associate professor at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. “A pathologist examines the tissue and reports the condition.”

He continued: “Breast cancer varies from zero to 4 and the probability of definitive cure in the early stages is much higher. Also, in low-grade tumors, the probability of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body is much lower.”

Azadeh added: “For many women over the age of 40, the presence of a breast mass or an abnormal mammogram is often the first sign of breast cancer. Other symptoms of breast cancer include redness, itching, and thickening of the skin on the breast.

According to him, leakage of fluid from the nipple or deformation of its tissue is another sign of cancer, and if there are these symptoms, the doctor will perform additional tests to detect breast cancer.

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