Health

We review the symptoms and treatment of pertussis

The cough can be so severe that it is difficult to breathe. Cough is undoubtedly the first sign. Treatment of pertussis in the early stages is with antibiotics such as erythromycin or trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. However; Infection causes fluid to seep through the nose, throat, bronchi, and bronchioles, blocking the airways.

Pertussis is a bacterial respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis bacillus and is transmitted by droplets in the nose and throat. It is very contagious and dangerous. Vaccination worldwide has greatly reduced the incidence of pertussis.

Pertussis
Pertussis is a bacterial respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis bacillus and is transmitted by nasopharyngeal droplets. It is highly contagious and dangerous. Vaccination worldwide has greatly reduced the incidence of pertussis. It affects all ages but is more common in children.
The incubation period of the disease is 14-8 days. Pertussis is contagious from two weeks before the onset of cough attacks to about 2 months. The condition for coughing attacks is physical strength. Because the infant lacks that power, he or she stops breathing instead of coughing, which may be suffocating.
Common symptoms
In the early stages, the symptoms include runny nose and dry cough, which turns into a cough with thick sputum and is accompanied by a slight fever. The child becomes tired and bored. After a week or two of severe attacks, a series of coughs appear. When you cough, it is difficult to breathe loudly and loudly. Even the moment of breathing stops and the child turns blue and sticks out his tongue. Because the vocal cords and nostrils contract and become convulsive.
At the end of the attack, the muscles of the vocal cords and nipples suddenly convulse and the child takes a deep breath. Some mucus is then expelled by pressure or vomiting. Pertussis lasts 6-12 weeks and leaves immunity for a lifetime. Complications of pertussis are pneumonia and encephalitis.
Causes of the disease:
Infection with Bordetella pertussis: This disease is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person or indirect contact such as breathing air containing infected droplets or touching a shirt or other contaminated material. The incubation period is 5-7 days.
Risk-increasing factors
1. Unvaccinated people
2. Late winter and spring epidemics. The spread of bacteria increases the severity of their pathogenesis.
3. Living conditions, crowded or unhealthy
4. Pregnancy

Prevention
Vaccinate all children against pertussis. Vaccination usually starts at 2 months of age and is not recommended after 5 years of age.
Isolate people with infections.
Here are some things you can do to help your child:
During a cough attack, sit the child down and try to keep him or her calm because anxiety and panic make cough attacks worse. Also encourage the child to spit out, as this will help clear the airways;
– If the child vomits following a cough attack, then give him some food and fluids and sit him straight so that the necessary substances and fluids reach his body;
– Do not allow heavy play until the child is fully recovered; Because too much activity re-stimulates cough attacks and makes him tired;
– Keep the child away from cigarette smoke and polluted air;
Do not give cough medicine to a child without a doctor’s prescription;
In pertussis, the child’s general condition is usually good in the intervals between cough attacks.
If your child becomes unwell or has difficulty breathing after a cough, you should see your doctor right away because there may be a secondary infection such as pneumonia or bronchitis.
Pertussis vaccine
Two types of pertussis vaccine are available. Whole-cell vaccines contain all the contents of pertussis bacteria that have been killed by chemical operations, and non-cellular vaccines that have recently been introduced by some industrialized countries. A whole-cell vaccine prevents severe disease. But it does not completely prevent infection. Non-cellular pertussis vaccines contain purified pertussis immunogenic antigens, which usually contain pertussis toxin-like toxins and outer membrane proteins.
Principles of all treatment
1. Diagnostic tests may include laboratory tests, blood tests, sputum cultures, and chest radiographs.
2. Hospitalization with intensive care for critically ill infants (older children can usually be treated at home)
3. Separate the patient personally to eliminate the fever. Mandatory visitors must wear a mask.
4. During a cough attack in a child, lift the bottom of the board. Lower the baby’s face and turn the head to one side to help empty the lungs. Older children usually prefer to sit and cough forward during a cough attack.
5. Use an ultrasonic moisturizer to relieve cough and help dilute secretions from the bronchi and lungs. Clean the moisturizer daily.

Possible side effects
1. Children under one year of age are at risk for severe complications or death.
2. Nosebleeds
Retinal detachment due to severe cough attacks
4. Convulsions and encephalitis
5. Pneumonia
6. Slowing or stopping breathing (apnea)
7. Middle ear infection
8. Rupture of blood vessels in the brain
treatment
The principle of all
Diagnostic tests can include laboratory tests of blood, sputum culture, and chest radiographs.
Hospitalization with intensive care for critically ill infants. Older children can usually be treated at home.
Isolate the patient until the fever goes away. Mandatory visitors must wear a mask.
During a cough attack in a child, raise the bottom of the bed. Lower the baby’s face and turn the head to one side to help empty the lungs. Older children usually prefer to sit and lean forward during a cough.
Use an ultrasonic moisturizer to relieve cough and help dilute bronchial and lung secretions. Clean the moisturizer every day.

medicines
1. Do not use cough medicines unless prescribed.
2. It may be recommended to start during the latency period of erythromycin.
3. Antibiotics may be prescribed for complications such as middle ear infection or pneumonia.

diet
Encourage your child to drink plenty of fluids such as fruit juices, tea, carbonated beverages and dilute soups.
There is no special diet. Meals that are small and in large quantities may reduce vomiting.

Source -7 Apples

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