There are several types of ovarian cancer; including epithelial cancer, borderline cancer and germ cell cancer. The most common type is cancer of the epithelial cells or the cells lining the ovaries.
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common cancers in women, which in most cases is diagnosed in advanced stages due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease, and this has greatly reduced the hope of survival of affected patients.
According to Bulletin News, Keyvan Khasi, an expert in charge of the cancer registration program of the Kermanshah Health Center, called ovarian cancer one of the most common cancers in women and clarified: unfortunately, in most cases, this disease is diagnosed in advanced stages.
He considered ovarian cancer to be curable if diagnosed in the early stages and stated: Unfortunately, in 75% of cases, due to the late diagnosis of the disease, despite extensive surgeries and various chemotherapies, the patient’s long-term survival hope is insignificant. Late diagnosis has caused this disease to be called the “silent killer”.
Regarding how this type of cancer occurs, he said: All types of cancer start from cells that are the building blocks of tissues.
He clarified: Normally, cells grow and divide to produce new cells according to the needs of the body, and on the other hand, when cells get old, they die and new cells take their place.
Khasi added: Sometimes this regular process does not proceed properly and new cells are formed when the body does not need them and old cells do not die when they should be destroyed.
He clarified: These extra cells form a mass of tissue known as a gland or tumor, and tumors may be malignant or benign depending on the case.
He stated that the highest age of this type of cancer is after 40 years old: this disease reaches its maximum prevalence between the ages of 75 and 79 years, so that its incidence increases with age.
Khasi said about the diagnosis of this disease: In the early stages, irregular menstruation forces the patient to see a doctor. In parallel with the growth of the tumor and its volume, pressure symptoms appear, which include frequent urination, pelvic pain, constipation, and after some time swelling of the abdomen, and acute abdominal pain may also occur due to bleeding or tearing and twisting of the tumor.
He clarified: If the tumor metastasizes to tissues outside the pelvis and the upper part of the abdomen, it may cause digestive symptoms such as nausea, heartburn, flatulence, early satiety, weight loss, and anorexia.
The expert in charge of the health center of Kermanshah province said that the most common symptoms in the final stages of the disease are abdominal pain and swelling and added: Abdominal pain is what probably forces the patient to see a doctor.
He clarified: Also, irregular bleeding from the genital tract may be seen with any type of ovarian tumor, and sometimes it may be the patient’s first complaint.
Khasi added: Affected women may also have bleeding after menopause, which manifests as irregular bleeding or heavy bleeding.
He stated that the most important symptom of ovarian cancer, which is usually diagnosed late, is a thick, irregular pelvic mass that is attached to the surrounding tissues, which is diagnosed during the examination of the patient.
He added: Touching such a mass during the examination strongly suggests a malignancy in the ovary.
Khasi called pelvic examination and anal examination as mandatory part of common examinations to diagnose this disease and added: Gayak test (checking the presence of hidden blood in stool) should always be done.
Referring to the complete examination of the abdomen, breasts and axillary lymph nodes in the diagnosis of this type of cancer, he said: According to the results of these examinations, the doctor will request specialized tests and sampling of the target tissue to reach a definitive diagnosis. .
At the end, Khasi stated: Ovarian cancer treatment depends on the age and general condition of the patient, and most importantly, the severity of the spread and spread of the disease, and includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.